Federalist #62, Madison: "What prudent merchant will hazard his fortunes in any new branch of commerce when he knows not but that his plans may be rendered unlawful before they can be executed? What farmer or manufacturer will lay himself out for the encouragement given to any particular cultivation or establishment, when he can have no assurance that his preparatory labors and advances will not render him a victim to an inconstant government? In a word, no great improvement or laudable enterprise can go forward which requires the auspices of a steady system of national policy."

Ending the government communications monopoly in 1982 restored free markets. Innovations of the Internet replaced nearly a century of rotary telephones. The 5X5 Standard of the Solar Mobility Ordinance restores transportation to free markets using well-known regulations with known costs and better safety records.

////////////   BEGIN 5X5 Standard that is quick to read, see detailed version below that can be funded ////////////


  1. Mobility is physical liberty and should be sustainable and equitable; and,
  2. The Boston Tea Party, a demonstration against a transportation monopoly that triggered a war; and,
  3. The Texas Constitution forbids government and commercial transportation and other monopolies: Article II, Bill of Rights, SECTION Sec. 26. PERPETUITIES AND MONOPOLIES; PRIMOGENITURE OR ENTAILMENTS. Perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free government, and shall never be allowed, nor shall the law of primogeniture or entailments ever be in force in this State.

THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED, To encourage economic development and transportation innovation in free markets, the ___CITY__or__STATE___ shall regulate grade-separated networks of self-driving vehicles by the following 5X5 Standard:

  1. Network construction must be privately funded. [[place risk on innovators, not taxpayers]]
  2. Networks must exceed 5 times the efficiency on existing roads (125 mpg or equivalent energy efficiency). [[metrics replacing political influence]]
  3. Networks meeting the 5X efficiency standard are automatically approved unless rejected in writing, for any reason whatsoever, within 30 days of plan submission. [[remove Milgram behaviors of bureaucracies and allow governments to enforce public interests, shift from approving to rejecting, place accountability on the innovators]]
  4. Pay 5 percent of the gross transportation revenues to the aggregate rights-of-way holders. [[compensate the taxpayers for Rights of Way use]]
  5. Operate without government subsidies. [[place risk on innovators, not taxpayers]]
  6. Exceed safety performance of transportation modes already approved for use. [[improve safety]]
  7. Obtain Rights of Way access using the existing Rights of Way policies. [[existing for telecommunications and energy]]
  8. Grade-separated guideways must be designed, fabricated, installed, insured, and inspected in compliance with International, ASTM International F24 standards for Amusement Rides and Devices (Disney monorail standard, Texas Department of Insurance). [[existing regulations, existing enforcement, existing common law, existing safety record 10,000 times better than roads (0.9 injuries per million versus 11,200 injuries per million on roads]]
  9. Gather more than 2 megawatt-hours of renewable energy per network mile per typical day. [[sustainable energy supply]]

//////////////////   END ////////////////////

Private capital will invest if there is a known cost of regulations. Following is a Letter of Interest from Goldman Sachs relative to their willingness to invest $4-6 billion in JPods in Georgia based on the 5X5 Standard. Goldman has since published an intent to invest $750 billion in the sustainability by 2030.


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